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Chadwick Boseman , Michael B. Fritz Bayerlein , reported on the difficulties experienced by the Panther tank in the fighting in Normandy:.

The Sherman because of its maneuverability and height was good Long gun barrel and width of tank reduce maneuverability in village and forest fighting.

It is very front-heavy and therefore quickly wears out the front final drives, made of low-grade steel. High silhouette. Very sensitive power-train requiring well-trained drivers.

Weak side armor; tank top vulnerable to fighter-bombers. Fuel lines of porous material that allow gasoline fumes to escape into the tank interior causing a grave fire hazard.

Absence of vision slits makes defense against close attack impossible. Bayerlein still appreciated the Panther's virtues when used in the right conditions, writing "An ideal vehicle for tank battles and infantry support.

The best tank in existence for its weight". Through September and October, a series of new Panzerbrigades equipped with Panther tanks were sent into France to try to stop the Allied advance with counter-attacks.

The Panther units were newly formed, poorly trained and tactically disorganized; most units ended up stumbling into ambushes against seasoned U.

A status report on 15 December listed an all-time high of Panthers assigned to the Western Front, with operational 71 percent. This was one day before the start of the Battle of the Bulge ; of the tanks assigned to the Western Front were in units sent into the offensive.

The Panther once again demonstrated its prowess in open country, where it could hit its targets at long range with near-impunity, and its vulnerability in the close-in fighting of the small towns of the Ardennes, where they suffered heavy losses.

Total writeoffs were listed as The Operation Greif commando mission included five Panthers assigned to Panzerbrigade , disguised to look like M10 Tank Destroyers by welding on additional plates, applying US-style camouflage paint and markings.

The disguised Panthers were detected and destroyed. In February , eight Panzer divisions with a total of Panthers were transferred from the West to the Eastern Front.

Only five Panther battalions remained in the west. By the end of the war, he had some 80 tank kills claimed. Historian Steven Zaloga observed that the Panther's performance in the Ardennes operation against American M4 Shermans was disappointing for a vehicle of its technical specifications, given the Panther boasted superior armor and armament to the Sherman.

Zaloga argues that this was down to the fact that at this point in the war, the quality of German tank crews had fallen and most Panther crews were inexperienced with minimal training.

The lack of training exacerbated the Panther's technical weaknesses poor power train durability and a lack of fuel and spare parts , resulting in many Panthers breaking down which were unable to be salvaged.

Thus while a Panther was superior to a Sherman in the hands of an experienced crew, inadequate training, coupled with Sherman numerical superiority, resulted in a poor combat performance for the vehicle during the offensive.

From , Panther turrets were mounted in fixed fortifications; some were normal production models, but most were made specifically for the task, with additional roof armour to withstand artillery fire.

They housed ammunition storage and fighting compartment along with crew quarters. A total of of these were installed in the fortifications of the Atlantic Wall and Siegfried Line Westwall , 48 in the Gothic Line and Hitler Line , 36 on the Eastern Front , and two for training and experimentation, for a total of installations by March They proved to be costly to attack, and difficult to destroy.

From 3 August , the new Panzer-Division 44 organisation called for a Panzer division to consist of one Panzer regiment with two Panzer battalions — one of 96 Panzer IVs and one of 96 Panthers.

Actual strengths tended to differ, and became far lower after losses. The first Panthers saw combat at Kursk in summer , revealing reliability issues beyond that typically expected for a new weapon system.

This was improved through ; the Panther's operational rate went from 16 percent at the end of July to 37 percent by December An improved version, the Panther Ausf.

A , entered production in August This received improvements from the Panther Ausf. D , including a better turret with a new commander's cupola and increased turret traverse speed.

More improvements began to have an effect on the combat-ready rate of the tanks deployed on the Eastern Front, which increased from 37 percent in February, to 50 percent in April, and 78 percent by the end of May General Heinz Guderian reported on 5 March The frontline reports said service life of the tank's engine had increased up from to 1,km [ to miles].

Plus, the same Panther tank-equipped units reported that failures regarding final drive, transmission and steering gears were within a suitable range.

From 6 March to 15 April , the 1. Four of their seven Panthers was still combat ready without any transmission or engine failure.

On 22 April , the same battalion reported how a good driver and commander can improve reliability:. The vehicle was still totally operational.

All items were in great condition but the tracks. The consumption of the engine has been 10ltr per km. The vehicle was still operating with its first engine and transmission.

After that report from the units, the Inspector General of Armored Troops acknowledged this in a report, at The report confirms the opinion that thanks to the continuous improvement of its components, the life of the Panther tank has increased.

The average lifespan of a Panther can now be roughly equal to that of a Panzer IV with around 1, - 2, kilometers between two major repair and maintenance processes.

Even so, in several cases, at approximately km, the gear has broken down and the boxes have had to be replaced. An example of Panther reliability appeared in the June edition of Nachrichtenblatt der Panzertruppen Armoured Troops Bulletin , from a Panther-recovery tank driver's report:.

Unteroffizier Krause of a Panther workshop platoon has driven his Panther recovery tank — Chassis No. About 1,km of this was made towing another Panther tank.

The vehicle and engine are still in great condition and operational. The Panther is inclined to catch fire quickly. The lifetime of the Panther's engines to km is much higher than the Panther's final drives.

A solution to the final drive teething is immediately needed. In September and October , a number of modifications were fitted into the final drives as countermeasures to the reported problems including worn gear teeth, parts, bearings, and insufficient lubrication.

After much development work, the first T tanks entered combat in March A Wa Pruef 1 report dated 5 October estimated that when set at a degree angle the T's upper glacis could be penetrated by the Panther's 7.

The Battle of Kursk convinced the Soviets of the need for even greater firepower. Standard doctrine for purpose-built anti-tank guns of the period universally relied on small, dense solid projectiles propelled to high velocities, optimized for punching through armor.

However, the mm HE shell would easily blow off the turret, drive sprocket and tread of the heaviest German tank even if it could not penetrate its armour [] [].

The SU was produced in large numbers throughout , with the first SUs being issued to new heavy mechanized gun regiments raised in May It mounted a mm gun-howitzer on the chassis of a KV-1S heavy tank.

Because of its adopted role as an impromptu heavy tank destroyer , capable of knocking out the heaviest German armoured vehicles— Tiger and Panther tanks, and Elefant tank destroyers—it was nicknamed ' Zveroboy' "Beast Slayer".

The mm HE round produced a massive blast that did not rely on velocity for its effectiveness, making them effective against any German tank, including the Panther, Tiger and Elefant.

Early , the SU tank destroyer saw extensive service, when Soviet forces defeated the German Operation Frühlingserwachen offensive at Lake Balaton.

The Western Allies were aware of the Panther and had access to technical details through the Soviets, but there was a difference in the American and British camps as to the significance of the tank.

After taking two years to catch up with German tank design in Africa, the British were wary of falling behind yet again. They had developed the excellent pounder anti-tank gun , but did not yet have a vehicle in service that could fit this large gun into its turret.

For its part, the U. Army did not believe that the Panther would be a significant problem, and did not foresee their armoured forces having to fight pitched engagements against large numbers of Panthers.

The Panther was not seen in combat by the Western Allies until early at Anzio in Italy, where Panthers were employed in small numbers.

Until just before D-Day 6 June , the Panther was thought to be another heavy tank that would not be built in large numbers.

Shortly before D-Day, Allied intelligence reported that large numbers of Panthers were being used in the panzer divisions, and an attempt was made to investigate Panther production.

Using a statistical analysis of the serial numbers on the road wheels on two captured tanks, U. This estimate was very accurate, especially compared to previous methods, as German records after the war showed production of Panthers for the month of February was This indicated that the Panther would be encountered in much larger numbers than had previously been thought.

Army expected to face a handful of German heavy tanks alongside large numbers of Panzer IVs. At this point, it was too late to prepare to face the Panther.

The British were more astute in their recognition of the danger posed by the increasing armour strength of German tanks. Work on a more powerful anti-tank gun had started in , and the tanks to use it in When these programmes were delayed, a stop-gap solution was found.

The pdr could through modifications be fitted to a Sherman, and orders for this Sherman Firefly were placed in By the time of the Normandy invasion, Sherman Fireflies were available to the Commonwealth armoured divisions.

The British lobbied for American production lines to be modified to produce Fireflies, but these suggestions were declined by the U. Army, in part due to the poor performance of British tank designs in North Africa.

British and Commonwealth tank units in Normandy were initially equipped at the rate of one Firefly in a troop with three Shermans or Cromwells.

This ratio increased until, by the end of the war, half of the British Shermans were Fireflies. At the time, U.

Lesley McNair. An artilleryman by trade, he believed that tanks should concentrate on infantry support and exploitation roles and avoid enemy tanks, leaving them to be dealt with by the tank destroyer force, which was a mix of towed anti-tank guns and lightly armoured fighting vehicles with open top turrets with 3-inch This doctrine led to a lack of urgency in the U.

As with the Soviets, the German adoption of thicker armour and the 7. The recommendation of a limited proportion of tanks carrying a 90mm gun is not concurred in for the following reasons: The M4 tank has been hailed widely as the best tank of the battlefield today.

There can be no basis for the T26 tank other than the conception of a tank-vs. Both British and American battle experience has demonstrated that the antitank gun in suitable numbers is the master of the tank.

There has been no indication that the 76mm antitank gun is inadequate against German Mark VI tank. All U. Tungsten production shortages meant that this round was always in short supply, with only a few available per tank, and some M4 Sherman units never received any.

Whereas Sherman tanks used a high flash powder, making it easier for German tankers to spot them, German tanks used a low flash powder, making it harder for Allied crews to spot them.

A US corporal stated:. I saw where some MkV tanks crossed a muddy field without sinking the tracks over five inches, where we in the M4 started across the same field the same day and bogged down.

It was very effective against the Panther's front turret and side. The high U. Small numbers of the M26 Pershing were also rushed into combat in late February Signal Corps cameraman of an M26 stalking and then blowing up a Panther in the city of Cologne, after the Panther had knocked out two M4 Shermans.

The production of Panther tanks and other German tanks dropped off sharply after January , and eight of the Panther regiments still on the Western Front were transferred to the Eastern Front in February The result was that, for the rest of the war during , the greatest threats to the tanks of the Western Allies were no longer German tanks, but infantry anti-tank weapons, such as the Panzerschreck and Panzerfaust , infantry anti-tank guns, such as the ubiquitous 7.

A German Army status report dated 15 March showed Panthers left in the entire Western Front, of which only 49 were operational.

The early impetus for upgrading the Panther came from the concern of Hitler and others that it lacked sufficient armour.

Hitler had already insisted on an increase in its armour once, early in its design process in Discussions involving Hitler in January called for further increased armour; initially referred to as Panther 2 it became the Panther II after April Production of the Panther 2 was slated to begin in September On 10 February , Dr.

Wiebecke chief design engineer for M. Total weight would increase to more than 50 metric tons. Additional meetings in February began to outline the various components, including a suggestion to adopt the King Tiger's hard-hitting 8.

Thus, plans to replace the original Panther design with the Panther II were already underway before the first Panther had even seen combat.

But from May to June , work on the Panther II ceased as the focus was shifted to expanding production of the original Panther tank. It is not clear if there was ever an official cancellation — this may have been because the Panther II upgrade pathway was originally started at Hitler's insistence.

The direction that the design was headed would not have been consistent with Germany's need for a mass-produced tank, which was the goal of the Reich Ministry of Armament and War Production.

One Panther II chassis was completed and eventually captured by the U. An Ausf G turret is mounted on this chassis. After the Panther II project died, a more limited upgrade of the Panther was planned, centred around a re-designed turret.

The Ausf F variant was intended for production in April , but the end of war ended these plans.

Another design drawing by Rheinmetall dated 1 March reduced the width of the turret front even further; this was the Turm-Panther Schmale Blende Panther with narrow gun mantlet.

A few were captured and shipped back to the U. One badly damaged turret is on display at the Bovington Tank Museum.

It had been used as a post-war range target until its historical significance was recognised. This increased armour protection also had a slight weight saving due to the overall smaller size of the turret.

The Panther Ausf F would have had the Schmalturm , with its better ballistic protection, and an extended front hull roof which was slightly thicker.

The Ausf F's Schmalturm was to have a built-in stereoscopic rangefinder — using twin matching armored blisters, one on each turret side, much like the Americans' post-war M47 Patton tank — and lower weight than the original turrets.

A number of Ausf F hulls were built at Daimler-Benz and Ruhrstahl-Hattingen steelworks; there is no evidence that any completed Ausf F saw service before the end of the war.

Proposals to equip the Schmalturm with the 8. These would have likely equipped future German tanks but none were built, as the war ended. The E series of experimental tanks — E, E, E, E, E the numbers designated their weight class — was proposed to further streamline production with an even greater sharing of common parts and simplification of design.

In this scheme, the Panther tank would have been replaced by the E A Belleville washer -based, hull sidemount suspension system was proposed to replace the complex and costly dual torsion bar system.

The Schmalturm would have been used, likely with a variant of the 8. Although a technologically sophisticated vehicle, the Panther's design had a very limited influence on postwar tank development.

The French postwar AMX 50 tank prototype was indirectly influenced by it through the Entwicklung series , but never entered series production.

It is claimed that the Panther was arguably a forebear to the modern main battle tank. The Panther itself also saw some limited use outside the German military, both before and after During the war, the Red Army employed a number of captured Panthers.

These were repainted with prominent Soviet emblems and tactical markings to avoid friendly fire incidents. Panzer IVs and StuGs, on the other hand, were so numerous in terms of spare parts and easy to repair that they could be used over a much longer period in combat conditions.

During March—April , Bulgaria received 15 Panthers of various makes D, A, and G variants from captured and overhauled Soviet stocks; they only saw limited training service use.

They were dug down, with automotive components removed, as pillboxes along the Bulgarian-Turkish border as early as the late s. The final fate of these pillbox Panthers is unknown, but sources indicate that they were replaced and scrapped in the s.

They were initially used by the 1st Armoured Brigade, but in the equipment was ceded to the Soviet-organized " Tudor Vladimirescu Division ", which was transformed from a volunteer infantry division into an armoured one.

The Panther tank was officially known as T-V T-5 in the army inventory. These tanks were in poor condition and remained in service until about , by which time the Romanian Army had received T tanks.

All of the tanks were scrapped by One captured vehicle named "Cuckoo" also saw service with the British Coldstream Guards for some time.

Germany sold Japan a single Panther along with a Tiger in September ; by the time it was ready in , it was impossible to ship due to Allied naval interdiction.

In , Sweden sent a delegation to France to examine surviving specimens of German military vehicles. During their visit, the delegates found a few surviving Panthers and had one shipped to Sweden for further testing and evaluation, which continued until The tank is on display in the Deutsches Panzermuseum in Munster.

These remained in service until they were replaced by French-built ARL 44 heavy tanks. A complete Panther and a complete Jagdpanther produced this way are now at the Bovington Tank Museum, Dorset, with brass plates on them, explaining their history.

Panthers, already with bush camouflage attached, being transported by rail to the front in France. Panther with full Schürzen spaced armour attached, intended to supplement the side armour above the roadwheels.

Panther with Schürzen partially attached. They were difficult to maintain in place when travelling through heavy brush. Subscribe to our newsletter.

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Dracula horror. Ryszard III dramat. Fort Apache, Bronx kryminalny, dramat. Hudson Hawk akcja, komedia. While limited numbers meant that during Normandy usually not more than one Sherman in each troop of four tanks was a Firefly variant, the lethality of the gun against German armour made them priority targets for German gunners.

In the meantime, U. Like the Sherman, the Panther struggled in the bocage country of Normandy, and was vulnerable to side and close-in attacks in the built-up areas of cities and small towns.

Fritz Bayerlein , reported on the difficulties experienced by the Panther tank in the fighting in Normandy:. The Sherman because of its maneuverability and height was good Long gun barrel and width of tank reduce maneuverability in village and forest fighting.

It is very front-heavy and therefore quickly wears out the front final drives, made of low-grade steel. High silhouette.

Very sensitive power-train requiring well-trained drivers. Weak side armor; tank top vulnerable to fighter-bombers. Fuel lines of porous material that allow gasoline fumes to escape into the tank interior causing a grave fire hazard.

Absence of vision slits makes defense against close attack impossible. Bayerlein still appreciated the Panther's virtues when used in the right conditions, writing "An ideal vehicle for tank battles and infantry support.

The best tank in existence for its weight". Through September and October, a series of new Panzerbrigades equipped with Panther tanks were sent into France to try to stop the Allied advance with counter-attacks.

The Panther units were newly formed, poorly trained and tactically disorganized; most units ended up stumbling into ambushes against seasoned U.

A status report on 15 December listed an all-time high of Panthers assigned to the Western Front, with operational 71 percent. This was one day before the start of the Battle of the Bulge ; of the tanks assigned to the Western Front were in units sent into the offensive.

The Panther once again demonstrated its prowess in open country, where it could hit its targets at long range with near-impunity, and its vulnerability in the close-in fighting of the small towns of the Ardennes, where they suffered heavy losses.

Total writeoffs were listed as The Operation Greif commando mission included five Panthers assigned to Panzerbrigade , disguised to look like M10 Tank Destroyers by welding on additional plates, applying US-style camouflage paint and markings.

The disguised Panthers were detected and destroyed. In February , eight Panzer divisions with a total of Panthers were transferred from the West to the Eastern Front.

Only five Panther battalions remained in the west. By the end of the war, he had some 80 tank kills claimed. Historian Steven Zaloga observed that the Panther's performance in the Ardennes operation against American M4 Shermans was disappointing for a vehicle of its technical specifications, given the Panther boasted superior armor and armament to the Sherman.

Zaloga argues that this was down to the fact that at this point in the war, the quality of German tank crews had fallen and most Panther crews were inexperienced with minimal training.

The lack of training exacerbated the Panther's technical weaknesses poor power train durability and a lack of fuel and spare parts , resulting in many Panthers breaking down which were unable to be salvaged.

Thus while a Panther was superior to a Sherman in the hands of an experienced crew, inadequate training, coupled with Sherman numerical superiority, resulted in a poor combat performance for the vehicle during the offensive.

From , Panther turrets were mounted in fixed fortifications; some were normal production models, but most were made specifically for the task, with additional roof armour to withstand artillery fire.

They housed ammunition storage and fighting compartment along with crew quarters. A total of of these were installed in the fortifications of the Atlantic Wall and Siegfried Line Westwall , 48 in the Gothic Line and Hitler Line , 36 on the Eastern Front , and two for training and experimentation, for a total of installations by March They proved to be costly to attack, and difficult to destroy.

From 3 August , the new Panzer-Division 44 organisation called for a Panzer division to consist of one Panzer regiment with two Panzer battalions — one of 96 Panzer IVs and one of 96 Panthers.

Actual strengths tended to differ, and became far lower after losses. The first Panthers saw combat at Kursk in summer , revealing reliability issues beyond that typically expected for a new weapon system.

This was improved through ; the Panther's operational rate went from 16 percent at the end of July to 37 percent by December An improved version, the Panther Ausf.

A , entered production in August This received improvements from the Panther Ausf. D , including a better turret with a new commander's cupola and increased turret traverse speed.

More improvements began to have an effect on the combat-ready rate of the tanks deployed on the Eastern Front, which increased from 37 percent in February, to 50 percent in April, and 78 percent by the end of May General Heinz Guderian reported on 5 March The frontline reports said service life of the tank's engine had increased up from to 1,km [ to miles].

Plus, the same Panther tank-equipped units reported that failures regarding final drive, transmission and steering gears were within a suitable range.

From 6 March to 15 April , the 1. Four of their seven Panthers was still combat ready without any transmission or engine failure.

On 22 April , the same battalion reported how a good driver and commander can improve reliability:. The vehicle was still totally operational. All items were in great condition but the tracks.

The consumption of the engine has been 10ltr per km. The vehicle was still operating with its first engine and transmission.

After that report from the units, the Inspector General of Armored Troops acknowledged this in a report, at The report confirms the opinion that thanks to the continuous improvement of its components, the life of the Panther tank has increased.

The average lifespan of a Panther can now be roughly equal to that of a Panzer IV with around 1, - 2, kilometers between two major repair and maintenance processes.

Even so, in several cases, at approximately km, the gear has broken down and the boxes have had to be replaced. An example of Panther reliability appeared in the June edition of Nachrichtenblatt der Panzertruppen Armoured Troops Bulletin , from a Panther-recovery tank driver's report:.

Unteroffizier Krause of a Panther workshop platoon has driven his Panther recovery tank — Chassis No.

About 1,km of this was made towing another Panther tank. The vehicle and engine are still in great condition and operational.

The Panther is inclined to catch fire quickly. The lifetime of the Panther's engines to km is much higher than the Panther's final drives. A solution to the final drive teething is immediately needed.

In September and October , a number of modifications were fitted into the final drives as countermeasures to the reported problems including worn gear teeth, parts, bearings, and insufficient lubrication.

After much development work, the first T tanks entered combat in March A Wa Pruef 1 report dated 5 October estimated that when set at a degree angle the T's upper glacis could be penetrated by the Panther's 7.

The Battle of Kursk convinced the Soviets of the need for even greater firepower. Standard doctrine for purpose-built anti-tank guns of the period universally relied on small, dense solid projectiles propelled to high velocities, optimized for punching through armor.

However, the mm HE shell would easily blow off the turret, drive sprocket and tread of the heaviest German tank even if it could not penetrate its armour [] [].

The SU was produced in large numbers throughout , with the first SUs being issued to new heavy mechanized gun regiments raised in May It mounted a mm gun-howitzer on the chassis of a KV-1S heavy tank.

Because of its adopted role as an impromptu heavy tank destroyer , capable of knocking out the heaviest German armoured vehicles— Tiger and Panther tanks, and Elefant tank destroyers—it was nicknamed ' Zveroboy' "Beast Slayer".

The mm HE round produced a massive blast that did not rely on velocity for its effectiveness, making them effective against any German tank, including the Panther, Tiger and Elefant.

Early , the SU tank destroyer saw extensive service, when Soviet forces defeated the German Operation Frühlingserwachen offensive at Lake Balaton.

The Western Allies were aware of the Panther and had access to technical details through the Soviets, but there was a difference in the American and British camps as to the significance of the tank.

After taking two years to catch up with German tank design in Africa, the British were wary of falling behind yet again. They had developed the excellent pounder anti-tank gun , but did not yet have a vehicle in service that could fit this large gun into its turret.

For its part, the U. Army did not believe that the Panther would be a significant problem, and did not foresee their armoured forces having to fight pitched engagements against large numbers of Panthers.

The Panther was not seen in combat by the Western Allies until early at Anzio in Italy, where Panthers were employed in small numbers. Until just before D-Day 6 June , the Panther was thought to be another heavy tank that would not be built in large numbers.

Shortly before D-Day, Allied intelligence reported that large numbers of Panthers were being used in the panzer divisions, and an attempt was made to investigate Panther production.

Using a statistical analysis of the serial numbers on the road wheels on two captured tanks, U. This estimate was very accurate, especially compared to previous methods, as German records after the war showed production of Panthers for the month of February was This indicated that the Panther would be encountered in much larger numbers than had previously been thought.

Army expected to face a handful of German heavy tanks alongside large numbers of Panzer IVs. At this point, it was too late to prepare to face the Panther.

The British were more astute in their recognition of the danger posed by the increasing armour strength of German tanks.

Work on a more powerful anti-tank gun had started in , and the tanks to use it in When these programmes were delayed, a stop-gap solution was found.

The pdr could through modifications be fitted to a Sherman, and orders for this Sherman Firefly were placed in By the time of the Normandy invasion, Sherman Fireflies were available to the Commonwealth armoured divisions.

The British lobbied for American production lines to be modified to produce Fireflies, but these suggestions were declined by the U.

Army, in part due to the poor performance of British tank designs in North Africa. British and Commonwealth tank units in Normandy were initially equipped at the rate of one Firefly in a troop with three Shermans or Cromwells.

This ratio increased until, by the end of the war, half of the British Shermans were Fireflies. At the time, U. Lesley McNair. An artilleryman by trade, he believed that tanks should concentrate on infantry support and exploitation roles and avoid enemy tanks, leaving them to be dealt with by the tank destroyer force, which was a mix of towed anti-tank guns and lightly armoured fighting vehicles with open top turrets with 3-inch This doctrine led to a lack of urgency in the U.

As with the Soviets, the German adoption of thicker armour and the 7. The recommendation of a limited proportion of tanks carrying a 90mm gun is not concurred in for the following reasons: The M4 tank has been hailed widely as the best tank of the battlefield today.

There can be no basis for the T26 tank other than the conception of a tank-vs. Both British and American battle experience has demonstrated that the antitank gun in suitable numbers is the master of the tank.

There has been no indication that the 76mm antitank gun is inadequate against German Mark VI tank. All U. Tungsten production shortages meant that this round was always in short supply, with only a few available per tank, and some M4 Sherman units never received any.

Whereas Sherman tanks used a high flash powder, making it easier for German tankers to spot them, German tanks used a low flash powder, making it harder for Allied crews to spot them.

A US corporal stated:. I saw where some MkV tanks crossed a muddy field without sinking the tracks over five inches, where we in the M4 started across the same field the same day and bogged down.

It was very effective against the Panther's front turret and side. The high U. Small numbers of the M26 Pershing were also rushed into combat in late February Signal Corps cameraman of an M26 stalking and then blowing up a Panther in the city of Cologne, after the Panther had knocked out two M4 Shermans.

The production of Panther tanks and other German tanks dropped off sharply after January , and eight of the Panther regiments still on the Western Front were transferred to the Eastern Front in February The result was that, for the rest of the war during , the greatest threats to the tanks of the Western Allies were no longer German tanks, but infantry anti-tank weapons, such as the Panzerschreck and Panzerfaust , infantry anti-tank guns, such as the ubiquitous 7.

A German Army status report dated 15 March showed Panthers left in the entire Western Front, of which only 49 were operational.

The early impetus for upgrading the Panther came from the concern of Hitler and others that it lacked sufficient armour.

Hitler had already insisted on an increase in its armour once, early in its design process in Discussions involving Hitler in January called for further increased armour; initially referred to as Panther 2 it became the Panther II after April Production of the Panther 2 was slated to begin in September On 10 February , Dr.

Wiebecke chief design engineer for M. Total weight would increase to more than 50 metric tons. Additional meetings in February began to outline the various components, including a suggestion to adopt the King Tiger's hard-hitting 8.

Thus, plans to replace the original Panther design with the Panther II were already underway before the first Panther had even seen combat.

But from May to June , work on the Panther II ceased as the focus was shifted to expanding production of the original Panther tank.

It is not clear if there was ever an official cancellation — this may have been because the Panther II upgrade pathway was originally started at Hitler's insistence.

The direction that the design was headed would not have been consistent with Germany's need for a mass-produced tank, which was the goal of the Reich Ministry of Armament and War Production.

One Panther II chassis was completed and eventually captured by the U. An Ausf G turret is mounted on this chassis. After the Panther II project died, a more limited upgrade of the Panther was planned, centred around a re-designed turret.

The Ausf F variant was intended for production in April , but the end of war ended these plans. Another design drawing by Rheinmetall dated 1 March reduced the width of the turret front even further; this was the Turm-Panther Schmale Blende Panther with narrow gun mantlet.

A few were captured and shipped back to the U. One badly damaged turret is on display at the Bovington Tank Museum. It had been used as a post-war range target until its historical significance was recognised.

This increased armour protection also had a slight weight saving due to the overall smaller size of the turret. The Panther Ausf F would have had the Schmalturm , with its better ballistic protection, and an extended front hull roof which was slightly thicker.

The Ausf F's Schmalturm was to have a built-in stereoscopic rangefinder — using twin matching armored blisters, one on each turret side, much like the Americans' post-war M47 Patton tank — and lower weight than the original turrets.

A number of Ausf F hulls were built at Daimler-Benz and Ruhrstahl-Hattingen steelworks; there is no evidence that any completed Ausf F saw service before the end of the war.

Proposals to equip the Schmalturm with the 8. These would have likely equipped future German tanks but none were built, as the war ended.

The E series of experimental tanks — E, E, E, E, E the numbers designated their weight class — was proposed to further streamline production with an even greater sharing of common parts and simplification of design.

In this scheme, the Panther tank would have been replaced by the E A Belleville washer -based, hull sidemount suspension system was proposed to replace the complex and costly dual torsion bar system.

The Schmalturm would have been used, likely with a variant of the 8. Although a technologically sophisticated vehicle, the Panther's design had a very limited influence on postwar tank development.

The French postwar AMX 50 tank prototype was indirectly influenced by it through the Entwicklung series , but never entered series production.

It is claimed that the Panther was arguably a forebear to the modern main battle tank. The Panther itself also saw some limited use outside the German military, both before and after During the war, the Red Army employed a number of captured Panthers.

These were repainted with prominent Soviet emblems and tactical markings to avoid friendly fire incidents. Panzer IVs and StuGs, on the other hand, were so numerous in terms of spare parts and easy to repair that they could be used over a much longer period in combat conditions.

During March—April , Bulgaria received 15 Panthers of various makes D, A, and G variants from captured and overhauled Soviet stocks; they only saw limited training service use.

They were dug down, with automotive components removed, as pillboxes along the Bulgarian-Turkish border as early as the late s. The final fate of these pillbox Panthers is unknown, but sources indicate that they were replaced and scrapped in the s.

They were initially used by the 1st Armoured Brigade, but in the equipment was ceded to the Soviet-organized " Tudor Vladimirescu Division ", which was transformed from a volunteer infantry division into an armoured one.

The Panther tank was officially known as T-V T-5 in the army inventory. These tanks were in poor condition and remained in service until about , by which time the Romanian Army had received T tanks.

All of the tanks were scrapped by One captured vehicle named "Cuckoo" also saw service with the British Coldstream Guards for some time.

Germany sold Japan a single Panther along with a Tiger in September ; by the time it was ready in , it was impossible to ship due to Allied naval interdiction.

In , Sweden sent a delegation to France to examine surviving specimens of German military vehicles.

During their visit, the delegates found a few surviving Panthers and had one shipped to Sweden for further testing and evaluation, which continued until The tank is on display in the Deutsches Panzermuseum in Munster.

These remained in service until they were replaced by French-built ARL 44 heavy tanks. A complete Panther and a complete Jagdpanther produced this way are now at the Bovington Tank Museum, Dorset, with brass plates on them, explaining their history.

Panthers, already with bush camouflage attached, being transported by rail to the front in France.

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